H2 Database

H2 is a Java-based Database which replaced Derby as the default database in Payara 5. Derby as a database service that can be started and managed by Payara Server Enterprise, has been removed starting from version 5.201.

Why replace Derby?

In terms of performance, Derby is one of the slowest embedded databases as compared to other H2, PostgresSQL, HSQLDB, etc. H2 also has a smaller disk footprint; the size of a JAR file is around 1.5 MB.

To Start the Database

To start the database run the command below:

asadmin> start-database

The above command will start H2 on the default port, which is 9092.

To Stop the Database

To stop the database run the command below:

asadmin> stop-database

The above command will stop H2 by default.

To connect to H2 DB databases

To connect to an H2 DB database and execute SQL scripts, you should:

  • Stop Payara Server if running

  • Navigate to /path/to/payara/payara5/h2db/bin to find the h2db binaries

  • Execute java -jar h2.jar (this will start the H2 Admin UI server and open browser with the Admin UI URL)

  • In the browser, set JDBC URL to jdbc:h2:<path to payara>/glassfish/domains/<domainname>/lib/databases/ejbtimer to connect to the EJB timer database (or change the path to connect to another DB)

  • Leave the other options as they are and log into the SQL console

  • Make sure to stop the java -jar h2.jar process before launching Payara Server